## Aleksandr V. Bukalove-mail: boukalov@gmail.com ## On the quantum-mechanical description of the life phenomenon
It is proposed the description of alive organism as a macroscopic analogy of a coherent quantum system, evolving a structure, consisting from the discrete space-time levels. It is introduced the operator It is known that the life processes are characterized by the significant degree of the biochemical events ordering in the space-time. Really the biological objects are the unite coherent unbalanced system with the ordered space-time structure, which is created and supported by the continuous energy supply. It follows the possibility of the organism consideration as a coherent, functioning system of molecules, ordered in the space-time. Such a system can be considered as a macroscopic analogy of the quantum-mechanical object The cell as a unite coherent object with the ordered and observed metric space-time structure due to the energy supply can be considered as the unbalanced object and process, partly localized in the energy-momentum space. It follows from the character of the coordinate observation process in quantum mechanics: under the quantum object interference on diffraction slit the coordinate cannot be detected and only the momentum is measured [9]. The object coordinate measure is produced for example by the illumination using the photons or some particles flow. In dependence of the illuminating quanta energy it is determined the object localization. But such a coordinate measurement causes the uncontrolled energy-momentum transfer to the object. This approach is valid to any coherent unbalanced object with energy supply because the quantum mechanics principles can be used for the world as a whole. The unbalanced system exists only under the current energy flow presence. One should note that energy supply by the quanta flow to the considered system is analogous to the coordinate measurement process, namely: the supplied energy-momentum flow provides the Δ p-components expansion, i.e. it causes the space-time localization of the molecules system. Simultaneously due to the uncertainty principle this process causes the uncertainty of the energy-momentum values of the molecules system. Thus the unbalanced system becomes more ordered functionally and more delocalized in the energy-momentum space.Thus, any selforganization process in the unbalanced systems can be considered as the process of the measurement of the space-time coordinates by the energy-momentum supply (which interact with the system and are receipted by it). Thus measurement is equivalent to the formation of the observed space-time structure if the object. Due to the coherence of the macroscopic dissipative structures it rises actually, the macroscopic analogy of the uncertainty principle: x ≥ _{coher}const,Δε·Δ t ≥ const.The energy supply, as it is known , amplificates the microfluctuation till the macroscopic scales [12] and causes the observed structures origin. The ferments function can be considered as an illustration. They have rather presice ordered space structure. The ferment possibility to produce the correlated biochemical reactions, what is connected with the precise time correlation of the events consequence and refers to the ordering of the ferments functioning in time. Thus the ferment acting process is the presice correlated system if the degrees of freedom of the macromolecular atoms thermal vibrations as well as the surroundings solvent atoms and summarized and canalized in the ferment active centre due to the space-time ordering of the macromolecule structure. It causes the energy-momentum interference or the system increasing of the energy (momentum) uncertainty, which is used by catalyst for the energetical barrier reducing. The rised energy-momentum uncertainty is a character feature of the biochemical processes. Namely due to this energy-momentum uncertainty and the consequent space-time ordering a cell functions as a one unite. The system energy uncertainty, rising in the single ferment level, is amplificated and correlated with the energetical uncertainties of others ferments, united by the biochemical cycles in the unite space-time structures. The molecule structures interact between them not only by the biochemical transformations products. It was marked by A.G.Gurvich [8] that between the molecules in cell there is the energetical exchange by the electromagnetic radiation, in particular, the ultraviolet one, which causes the energetical processes correlation within the whole cell. It was nothing but the description of the space-time energetical ordering. Gurvich determined that the coherent change of the organism condition, for example, cooling, can cause the radiation release. Thus the external organizing energy supply is equivalent to the rise of the space-time information, which is reflected in the forming protein structures and simultaneously forms the energetical uncertainty till the cell scale. Let us note that the terms “energy-momentum uncertainty” or “energy-momentum interference” are used in order to point out the principal, from the quantum mechanics point of view, symmetry between the wave and corpuscle descriptions of matter. The “life whirlwind” can be considered as the coherent state of molecules, atoms and the electronic shell of the cell and organism atoms. This interference in the frequencies space, rising due to the splitting of the energetical levels of the DNA, RNA and protein molecules, forms the practically continuous spectrum. For such wave function with the continuous energetical spectrum it is valid the principle of the energetical states superposition. It also means that the biochemical reactions, being ordered in the space-time field, interference in the energetic ε-space (frequency space), in the energetical spectra space. It follows that the interference (wave) in ε-space causes some energetical structures, i.e. the real change in energetical space is nothing but the chemical compounds transformation. The frequency space (or energetical one) is practically continuous in the wide energy range, or, by other words, the dynamic structure is delocalized in energetical space and united. It means that any energetical disturbance makes its action in the summarized wave function over the whole frequency space, i.e. the system reacts as a one unite. I.e. an atom or photon makes its generalized action over the whole spectrum. Let us suppose that we consider the photons flows, which interfere after the single frequency transformation [1], and likewise between the biochemical structures the interference “beats” rise after the transformation to the single frequency, i.e. the biochemical reaction. The mentioned process is realized in an organism, for example by the help of ATP as the universal energy source. Another example is connected with the nervous system, when the all biochemical organism reactions are reduced to the unite processes, connected with neutron pulses. Besides, if in the one photon spectrum it is reflected the emitioning object state, thus the brain, as a coherent structure, reproduces this state, i.e. modulates, decodes it, concentrates and amplificates, producing the information reflection. For electromagnetic radiation the interference topics in energetical of frequency space were considered in a set of works. In [1] it was noted that the photon, under the interference in the energy-momentum space, makes its action over the whole laser spectrum. There is a principal circumstances that the photon is emitted by a laser, which is an unbalanced system, ordered in the space-time. It was pointed that the photon interference in the frequency space means the complex structure presence. We note, that from the quantum mechanics point if view the photon has the space-time structure, reflecting the structural ordering of laser radiation. The analogous conclusion can be made in respect to the molecules of the substances, supplied to the cell: they have the inside ordering structure (characterized by negentropy) and make a contribution into the whole energetical cell spectrum. Thus the supplied molecules interfere with the whole cell and make their contribution into the total cell wave function ψ( The interference in the energy-momentum and The observed space-time structure components can be compared with the operator Then we are able to write the quantum equation for alive organism in the supplied energy flow: In the time field under In this case the operator The equation (3) is analogous to the Schrödinger one and thus from it follows the analogy of the integral over the Feynman trajectories. The observed reveal of this process is the competition of the energetical modes, macromolecules, biochemical cycles within cell, namely the cell and organisms, i.e. nothing but the natural selection according to Darwin. Molecules, cells, organisms, kinds complete among them on the every hierarchy level of the alive matter organization in the energy-momentum space. The mentioned properties follow from the statements of the orthodoxal quantum mechanics. Let us also note that the description of the set of biological reactions as the energy-momentum interference simply leads us to the synergetic ideas. For the motion in the energy-momentum space over the minimal trajectory the organism needs the space-time information, which will be exact under the energetical interference. This one also is produces under the psychical processes. The interference causes to the indiscernition of the organism parts in the life processes proceeding. It means that the information, containing in the organism, its quantity and contents have to differ essentially from the information, containing in an unalive matter, for example, in crystal The quanted macroscopic whirlwinds in the superfluidity liquids, such as He-II or He-III, have their analogy, which is the biochemical cycle in the alive cell. The biochemical cycle of the matter transformation is a temporal structure, moving in the energy-momentum of the current matter, i.e. the ordered in the energy-momentum space. The current energetical cycle also can be considered as a “whirlwinds” in time or the biochemical energetical cycle, developing in time as a temporal structure of events, expressed by the operator The Benar cells are the obvious but an elementary energetical cycle with the momentum concervation for the every structural component (due to the continuity); whereas the dynamical character of Benar cells , laser radiation etc. means the correlation in the space-time. There are various approaches to the ferments functioning modeling [2, 3, 13] whereas from the observed system point of view the ferment functioning is realized due to the ordering of the energetical zero vibrations in the space-time ferment structure, i.e. the random vibrations channeling by some degrees of freedom. Really in the ferment functioning the all life principles are present: the space-time structure existence provides the energy-momentum states (oscillators vibration) correlation, i.e. the vacuum quantum vibration ordering. The integration of the 10 The main mass of organism is consisted by proteins, including ferments, which provide the ordering of the large number of the degree of freedom of the cell water molecules and, possible, the vacuum fields. The biochemical cycles and their sets form the space-time internal structure of organism because they have the high events correlation. The space-time symmetry violation means the presence of correlation between the parts of system in energy-momentum. The renormgroup method provides the effective reducing of the number of the considered degrees of freedom, because after the phase transition the system symmetry is destroyed and the degrees of freedom number is sharply reduced: One can see that the described phenomenon is completely revealed in alive organism under the degrees of freedom integration in unite motion and the provision of essential delocalization in the (ε, x, t).On the base of the most general approach the Universe phase space can be divided by the two parts: the vacuum (Λ By other words the space-time localization is connected with the delocalization in the energetical space, what causes the coherent behaviour in the energy-momentum of the alive organism space-time structure. Such the correlation organism behavious points out the existence of the Λ We have noted that the ferments ordering in the space-time field causes the delocalization of the energy-momentum of the ferment active centre, what reduces the activation threshold due to the interference in the (ε, By such a way it is realized the underbarrier catalysis or elementary biochemical action. Meanwhile all the biochemical cycles consist of the set of such elementary actions: firstly, the parallel production of such operations; and secondly, the consequent production of ones (for example, the simple molecules splitting). I.e. in the course of the cycle production it has place (in respect to the supplied product) the consequent delocalization in (ε, The organism subsystems are ordered in (ε, x-determination under the ε-undetermination, or the organism wave function ψ_{bio} is in a pure but not in mixed state, which refers to the set of separate organism or systems. Thus the energy, supplied to organism, brings the information I, which becomes significant under the interference in the space, when the ferments and organoids, being ordered in the (x, t)-space, interfere among them in the (ε, p)-space. It means the interaction of ferments, RNA, DNA, membrane etc. as well as the total interference in (ε, p)-structure, described by the unite wave function.It is obvious that the wave function ψ p)-space for the way, limited by energetical structures with some geometry in the energy-momentum space, what is expressed by the distribution and the degree of the suitability of the food and others energetical resources.The interference in the (ε, Taking into account that an organism is the space-time ordered structure, it is possible to note that the space-time correlation of biochemical events and processes is unreplaceable and unchangeable. Thus every molecule has the individual space-time trajectory in organism. By other words an organism forms the unite unchangeable space-time continuum of events, nonlocalized in (ε, Thus the degree of ordering of alive organism is by 10 The generalization by the energetical coordinate explains the small thermodynamical production of entropy and information under the large stock of the The space-time ( I(x, t) = lnW(x, t). (5)
This structure contains the large information. According to the construction of the “receiver” (organism) the wave packet distortion has place over the energetical space of the organism subsystems or the whole organism; this process can be considered as the information communication action and its reception. Thus the introduction of such a notion as the interference of the ψ As the psychics is the inside part of an alive structure, it is also (and by the first turns) described by the wave function ψ In some case, the analogical to the superfluidity of the Fermi-liquid type He-III [10, 11], the biological system (alive organism) can be characterized by the fractal hierarchy of the space-time structures under the (ε, Thus the ordered flow of electrons (leptons), protons and neutrons (barions), atoms forms some space-time dynamical structure Thus the Bukalov operator
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[1] The main text of the work was written in 1987. It is published firstly. Another approach, correspondent to our one and based on the consideration of the coherent electromagnetic field of organism, possessing of the self-coordinated potential, is developed by S.P.Sitko et al. [14].
[2] It was shown by us later [4, 6, 7].
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