Aleksandr V. Bukalov

The Centre of Physical and Space Researches, International Institute of Socionics
"Physics of Consciousness and Life, Cosmology and Astrophysics" journal, issue 1, 2003 .

The inhabited planets quantity in the Galaxy and Universe according to the SETI. The civilization development strategies

Basing on the new physical approach in description of the characteristics of alive matter, the author obtained a numerical values for mass of living matter in the Universe, quantity of biospheres in the Universe (Nbio~3.3·1018), quantity of biospheres in the Galaxy (N~(1±0.5)·108). The calculated average distance between biospheres in the Galaxy is l≤25 light years. However, the probability of disclosure of an extraterrestrial civilization, analogous to Earth one, is too small, P~10-5. It is shown, that a paradigm of the expansive and extensive development of the modern technological civilization in the bounds of SETI is useless principally. A strategy of intensive growth of civilization using the low-energy quantum technologies is more realistic. In that case, the radiation of civilization becomes low and it is very difficult to detect such civilization in the electromagnetic diapason.
Key words: SETI, quantity of biospheres in the Universe, life in Galaxy, strategy of the civilization growth, astrobiology, communication, thermodynamics, tempodynamics.

The determination of the inhabited planets quantity is rather complex problem today. The detection of the gigantic clouds with organic molecules in the Galaxy points out that in Cosmos there are natural resources for the alive matter creation (nuclein and aminoacids) under the suitable conditions on certain planets. Recent investigations of the Mars meteorites provide us to make a conclusion about the existence of some life forms on this planet. This conclusion is supported by the known fact of the existence on Mars of the dryed rivers beds. Besides, recent investigations provided the detection of the freezed water under the Mars surface. The organic molecules were detected in the comet matter, which also can be treated as concentrators of organics and the primary reactions of the organic molecules synthesis, especially under the drawing near the Sun and other analogous stars. The last 20 years investigations showed that some alive microorganisms are extremely proof against the action of unfavorable factors and are able to survive in the space vacuum conditions.

The mentioned facts totality proves us to make a conclusion that the life was not sure born on Earth (or even on Mars) but populated the Earth when the suitable conditions was risen on the planetafter cooling. Thus the Earth biosphere is not a unique one and the only in the Galaxy and Universe.

Then it is risen the regular question: what is the quantity of inhabited planets? Till the lately time it was known only the probable evaluations like the Drake formula, which has rather hypothesis character [18-20].

Basing on the new physical description of alive matter properties, the satisfactory exact numerical estimations were obtained for alive metter mass and, correspondingly, for the quantities of the biospheres alike to the Earth one [2, 3]. The essence of the new approach is just the following. Any alive organism, beginning from a cell , has the certain degree of order, which can be expressed by the information evaluation formulae. But under the standard approach to the alive organism information evaluation, proposed by L.A.Blumenfeld [1], the information quantity in biological object does not differ from the one in a lifeless matter, for example, a stone of the same weight.

Thus the standard thermodynamics approach has led us to the deadlock. The difference between the alive matter and the lifeless crystalline one is rather obvious. The author analysis showed that the mentioned approach does not take into account the alive matter dynamics character, connected with its biochemical dynamics. By other words, the Blumenfeld formula is suitable for the "instantaneous" "freezed" state of alive matter, when it does not differ compared with a crystal. By the way, the whole Boltzmann-Gibbse thermodynamics is valid only within the "freezed" quasi-stationary alive state. The consideration of the temporal, time (metric) degrees of freedom provided the author to describe more adequate the alive matter state, which differs compared the lifeless one rather obviously and observable [2, 3].

The temporal (time) degrees of freedom are described by the quantity of time intervals Δtk as the minimal time interval, needed for the biochemical process checking under the given temperature.
sec.    (1)

Thus the formula for the information quantity or the alive matter degree of freedom includes the static and the temporal degrees of freedom:
,   (2)
where is the quantity of the organism temporal degrees of freedom per the certain time t (for example, the time of the life or reproduction cycle). The quantity of information in alive organism as an energetical and space-time object is expressed by the quantity of the Planck invariant cells [3]. Under this approach the quantity of the organism temporal degrees of freedom is described by the tempodynamics like to thermodynamics. Such a metric ordering of alive matter has an energetical analogy: it refers to the equivalent energy quantity, which is necessary for the support of the alive matter dynamic structure and its time degrees of freedom, i. e. for the support of the namely alive matter state. The calculation show that the energetical equipment is rather significant [2]. It is 103J/s for a cell and 1034J/s for biosphere. This energy prevails by 7-8 orders of magnitude compared with the solar energy. Nevertheless its equivalent source can be shown, it is the Universe vacuum energy, which determines it dynamics and structure:

Taking into account that the information-energetics contents of the whole structural global levels of matter in Universe (plasma star matter, planet matter, atomic hydrogen of nebulous) is approximately equivalent to İU ~ 1053 J/s, what is expressed by the approximate equality of the Planck cells per every structural level, one can conclude that in Universe there are not more than ĖU / Ėbio = 1019 biospheres, equivalent to the Earth one, with the total mass ~M∑bio ~ 1034-35 kg. If we take into consideration that the vacuum energy can be spread by the several structural levels, such as stars, planets, dark matter etc., the vacuum energy quantity, spent for the biospheres matter support, can be some times less. Let is evaluate the biospheres quantity more precise. The aminoacid residuals of alive matter in the Universe makes up:
~2.6·1058,    (4)
where =3.47·10121 is the Planck cells quantity or the Universe action.

In this case the biospheres quantity in Universe makes up:
≈3.3·1018,     (5)
where NKT is the aminoacid residuals number in the Earth biosphere, NKT ~ NBr·β ~ 7.9·1039, NBr is the barions number in the Earth biosphere, β~1/340 is the numeral coefficient, determining the aminoacid residuals quantity. Note also that β = α /, where α = 1/137 is the thin structure constant and ≈2,5 is the coefficient of the total mass relation to its dry matter [21]. α-1 is the approximate quantity of molecules in the average considered residual.

The mass of alive matter in biospheres obviously makes up 99.9% of the total alive mass, whereas the possible scattered bacteria and their spores make up the negligible part. We suppose, in accordance to the conclusions of V.I.Vernadskiy and other investigators, that the alive matter is especial but rather natural state of the Universe matter distribution in the form of protons, neutrons and electrons is concentrated previously in the stars plasma and makes up near 0.045 of the total Universe mass. The more ordered, partly crystalline planet form makes up approximately 10-5 of the mentioned mass. Thus it is rather obvious that the alive matter makes up the certain quantity and has to be spread in the whole Universe like stars and planets. This supposition can be connected with the principle of the maximum entropy production under the certain conditions. Moreover, the alive matter degree of order provides that for one barion and electron (proton or neutron) in alive matter there are approximately 1.75·1018 barions (protons and neutrons) or gaseous hydrogen atoms in Universe.

Taking into account that the crystalline planets total mass in Universe makes up ~1022·1025 = 1047 kg, we obtain that for one barion of the planet crystalline matter there are near 1052÷53 / 1047 ~ 105÷6of barions in Universe.

Thus the alive matter degree of order compared to the planet one is Z1= and compared to the hydrogen clouds Z2= (where the barion density ).

Besides, there is a reason to suppose that the alive matter fills all the Universe structural levels and the biospheres quantity is near to the maximal possible one.

The obtained relations prove the life phenomenon cosmos conditionality and the alive matter existence regularity.

Now let us evaluate the biospheres quantity in our Galaxy with mass M≈1012kg.

There are ~3.3·1018 biospheres in Universe whereas the barions total quantity is 1.56·1079. Then in Galaxy there are (1±0.5)·108 biospheres, i.e. near 100 millions. Under the condition of their uniform space distribution the average distance between biospheres in our Galaxy (Milky Way) makes up R≈25 light years.

Taking into account the possible "life belt" in the Galaxy rotation circle [13], the biospheres density can be greater by some times and the average distance between biospheres can be reduced to 12-15 light years, i.e. to the nearest star systems.

Thus the first obtained values, connected with the alive matter space characteristics, point to the existence in our Galaxy near hundred millions of biospheres, which are analogous to the Earth one by some degree. This result provides us to produce the more sure search of inhabited planets near the Solar system.

But another question is risen: which of these inhabited planets are populated by an intellectual life? Let us outline the methods for this problem solution.

From the obtained results it yields that near the Earth at the distance of 110 light years one can suppose the existence of biospheres, evaluated by the number from 85 (minimal value) till 600-700 (maximal value on the base of the hypothesis about the "life belt" in rotation circle). The relation of the Earth life existence time (4·109 years) to the intellectual creature development time (4·105 years) is K1 ~ 4·109 / 4·105 ≈ 104.

The obtained value means that a civilization, technologically analogous to the Earth one, is rather unique and can be situated at the distance more that some thousands light years from the Earth. Thus the possible biospheres can be divided by the two kinds: those ones, which have not any reasonable life, and other ones, which have it in the form of developed civilization. Near the Earth there is no civilization, which uses the radio communication. This conclusion is proved by the 40-years helpless attempts to receive any artificial radio signal. The humanity possesses the radio communication during 100 years and thus one can conclude that within the radius of 100-150 light years there is no analogous civilization, which is in agreement with our calculations.

There is very low probability to receive a radio signals from the developed civilization because they can come from the distance of hundreds and thousands light years. Is it possible to receive these signals and to recognize them? Under the condition of the civilization technological development (it is only a one of the possible development strategies) the changes are produced with a great rate. For example, we are not able to read a magnet disk using a laser disk recorder player. But these information containers were produced within the same technological civilization, the time distance between them is only 15 years! Thus the technological "mating" of different civilizations is rather small, thought they inevitable exist.

Besides, there is the known astro-sociological paradox: if some supercivilizations exist, they have to show their expansion all over the Galaxy. But where are the traces of their activity?

We begin to answer these questions by the notice that the CETI and SETI programs developed and are developing now in the cause of the possible detection of the electromagnetic signals from other civilizations. The zero result was obtained within such paradigm despite the essential efforts and the biggest radiotelescopes usage. Meanwhile there are all the reasons to suppose that the interstars radio communication paradigms unadequate in its base to the mentioned problem. Now the human civilization uses the radiowaves but this fact does not prove the others communication methods absence.

Let us begin from the known fact that the radiowaves intensive usage causes the electromagnetic pollution of the Space. For instance, the popular usage of the mobil telephones causes the sharp rise of the SHF-irradiation of human organism. There is the natural limit of the electromagnetic background and the excess over this limit causes the alive organisms degradation and their genetics structure destruction. Meanwhile the intensive development of physics and modern technologies makes us to come to the following conclusion: the radio communication usage in modern form is rather short stage (Δtr≤150 λες) within the civilization development time.

Already now the works are produced in order to the development of the principally new communication systems, including the usage of superlight signals [16, 26], and in the nearest 40-50 years the principally different, new technologies will be developed and applied. Let us note, that namely D.Maxwell considered his equations as uncomplete, whereas the connection of electromagnetism with the gravitation theory is not ascertained1. Meanwhile the discoveries only in these topics are able to initiate the principal changes of the situation in the communication industry. Modern attempt to communicate with some other civilization can be shown by the following model: a tribe on an isolated island tries to communicate with another island (under a fog condition) using the big drum because any other methods are inaccessible for them.

Thus the developed civilizations, and moreover the supercivilizations, do not use the radio communication and we have to accept this conclusion as the most probable. The mentioned communication is expensive, low effective on great distances, limited by the light barrier etc. Thus the paradox of the electromagnetic silence of Space is eliminated. As we have noted, the stage of the intensive usage of radio communication makes up near 150 years (actually it is the communicative horizon of the civilizations communication) and it is very unprobable (P ~ 10-4÷5) to detect this stage. In connection with this it is rather reasonable to consider the possible version of a civilization development in order to understand the essence of any supercivilization (according to the Earth measures).

The intensive energy usage and the heat expulsion have the natural limit, connection with the thermal overheat of planet. Thus the limit of the mined and used energy for our biosphere is 3·1015 J/s [23] (the modern production is ~1013 J/s).

Within SETI it was proposed by N.S.Kardashev the possible civilizations division by 3 types according to the mined and used energy as well as to the existence of the correspondent space and astrophysical effects [11]. The I type civilizations use the planet energy sources, the used power is ~4·1012 J/s, their technological level is near the modern Earth one. The type II civilizations are the energy of their stars, the power consumption is ~4·1026 J/s. The type III civilizations use the energy within their Galaxy, the power consumption is ~4·1037 J/s.

But the staged civilizations division by three types, despite its perspective for the Earth civilization development, looks rather unrealistic. The matter is that the used energy has to be checked. But even the mentioned energy fluctuations, without saying of breakdowns, exceed significantly the biological stability level of the alive organisms and the whole biosphere. One large breakdown of the installation with the power 1013-15J/s (for example, solar space power station) has the energy concentration, which can destroy the significant part of biosphere and civilization. For the more large power operation (types II and III civilizations due to Kardishev) the alive creatures must have the superstraight material, which has noting common with organics compounds. This version is probable as a hypothesis, but it is impossible to have any contact with such creatures according to their specific actions, which under the global approach can be perceived by us as the natural processes and undiffered from the actions of the natural processes and undiffered from the actions of the natural laws in modern understanding. Thus the extensive way of the civilization development into supercivilization can lead to the line and according to the barriers of the biological strength.

Let us consider the principally another version when the development impulse causes not to extensive but to intensive development of the resource- and energy-saving technologies. The electronics micro-miniature modules introduction has place as well as the general transition from the physical work to the intellectual one with the processes operation prevalence. This phenomenon has its reflection by the creation of the information society, where the prevalence of the information production and treatment has place. Not only the information technologies but also the psychoinformation ones are developed and introduced [5], what provides to treat the large information flows. The nanotechnologies intensive development has place in order to replace a number of expensive, unhealthy, power-extensive productions and the molecule robots rose, including those ones, which are able o correct the organism defects. Besides, the mentioned technologies practically resolve the problem of the fast exhaustion of the stored resources and minerals.

Thus the developing civilization under the presence of the energetic, thermal, destruction barriers begins to develop intensively by the reducing of the energy consumption per the produced and used products. This civilization will become less and less power-extensive and thus it will be less and less detectable. Taking into account the very probable transition to the other communication means usage including the one, based on other fields and interactions, the developed civilization will not be detectable within the electromagnetic range.

Thus the technological civilizations are rather seldom. Their existence term is near 200 years and then they disappear, but not quite, as I.S.Shklovsky supposed [24] on the base of the modern science-technical paradigm, but transform into something other. Such transformations are similar to the transition of a caterpillar into chrysalis and then into butterfly or any other insect2. Besides the usage of the modern genetics energetic technologies and cloning will lead to the inevitable prolongation of human life as well as to the population growth stabilization due to the life condition improvement and the elimination of the civilization expansive development. S.P.Kapitsa showed that the limit of the Earth population growth is near 10 milliards [10]3. To be sure, such an intensive method of civilization development changes its cultural characteristics and strategies. In perspective it can lead to the oriented change of genetics code and to the appearance of a new species Homo sapiens sapiense, which will have "superpossibilities" compared to the modern people [4]. It is necessary to point out that the civilization information growth does not mean the energetical one. Such an evolution also is not directed to the creation of the artificial autoevolution "Lem world" [17, 25]. The intensive development is the third way and the most probable one, according to our mind, compared to the possible expansive and autoevolution ones. The quantum technologies are developed, including the teleportation, with the output to the quantum metric characteristics in quantum Universe [6], connected with the space-time transitions4, which have such an uncomplete prototype as the theory of "mole burrow" by Einstein-Rosenwiller-Torn [14]. Obviously that the mechanisms, devices and equipment for the space motion become "unperceptible" under such technologies despite their high potential power, penetrating ability, motion speed. One also has to note the psychotechnologies, such as telepathy etc. Such a "supercivilization" has the access to the whole Galaxy or Universe but it does not lead to the extensive expansion because this civilization has another aims5. Besides, taking into account the biospheres density in Space, one can conclude that the suitable planets are populated by an alien life form whereas the life for an unsuitable planets needs the essential resource spending. But it is not excluded the some planets usage for the minerals production with the usage of automatons6.

Such a strategy is not practically investigated by the modern SETI paradigm, oriented to extensivity. That is why the similar phenomena search is not foreseed or actively ignored and forced out by the SETI researchers. It is refered to the UFO phenomenon [12]7, which is studied by many research groups and organizations all over the world. Many phenomena, including the material residuals and implantants the hundred (!) people organisms show directly that the point is in civilizations, reflected from an extensive strength barrier and developing in the high intensive course. The phenomena of inspiration and action on the psychics of "contractecters" (sure, excluding the psychosis people) prove that such a development strategy connects directly with the physics of the processes, low intensive by energy but high situated by information, as well as with the physics of consciousness, psychotechnology, where the physical action in some cases is replaced by the information translation into the human psychics.

Meanwhile, we cannot find in any SETI scientific collection the discussion of the UFO problem even as a hypothesis one. This phenomenon has the deep psychological explanation: it is the process of the forcing out the unperceived frighten information by the modern paradigmal collective consciousness. The UFO phenomenon, fixed rather objective [12], shows the science and technology, which is more perfect compared with the Earth one by some orders of magnitude. The possible contact with the more developed civilizations frightens people on the very deep level of the underconsiousness and thus it is unacceptable. The "miracle" is commonly waited but such "wonder" as UFO is ignored. This phenomenon destroys completely the comfortable conservative electromagnetic conception of the search of civilizations, which are identical by the "technological spirit". Meanwhile, the contact with the civilization, presented by UFO, is not equal in rights. It is the sharp asymmetrical interaction, which in general suppresses the Earth inhabitant. Strictly speaking the different countries servicemen were convinced during the World War Second of the danger absence from UFO but it is better not to wage war against it. Thus the UFO phenomena probably show the future civilization picture after some hundreds or thousands years. The Space occurs to be reclamated on the level of these technologies but we do not perceive it.

The intellectual honesty obliges the reasechers to the investigation of all the "strange" phenomena but not only those ones, which are approved by common opinion. Then the paleovisit problem takes another sense: our Earth can be visited by the other planet inhabitants but they could translate their operation and information impulses in the form of the action an the psychic sphere of person and society8.

Let us return to the problem of the search a life out of the Earth. To be sure this life will be found soon or late. It is true that then the following question will rise inevitable: besides the investigation what have we to do with this strange life, which probable is aggressive to our life form9? From out point of view it is more preferable to populate the nearest planets, for example, Venera, and to transform them by the Earth form of life, as it was proposed in the 60th of XX century. From another side the overcome of the electromagnetic communication barrier will probable correspond to the entering of the Earth civilization into the new development phase. Then it can provide the contact with the developed civilizations on the principal another level and the introduction into their "community", which can be constructed on the principles, which are rather different compared the ones accepted now within the Earth cultures.



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[1] In this context it is enough to remember the known phenomenon of the ball lighting, which is not explained and reproduced till now.  Back
[2] This process can be accomplished by important social shock.  Back
[3] The obtained results correspond to the independent calculations by UN, World Bank, NASA etc.  Back
[4] If one considers the alive organisms as the quantum objects it is possible for them to tunnel, to travel through space-time according to the mentioned transitions.  Back
[5] In this case the field forms of life instead of molecule ones look rather natural (this corresponds to the Tsiolkovskiy "Ray Mankind".  Back
[6] It is not excluded that the similar activity has place on the Moon, where the astronomers sometimes observe the strange phenomena, which can be interpreted as the technogen activity of some civilization.  Back
[7] In this book, printed due to the decision of the Geographic society presidium, there is the important, perpectly documented material.  Back
[8] Then the rising of megalithical buildings, very simple by producing and very complex by astronomical, geometrical and energetical structure, can be explained by the information remote action of the space intellect, which used them for the communication or other technologies (for example, the navigation one by the creation of the special "beacons") in space.  Back
[9] Meanwhile the strange biosphere investigation includes the biological material collection for different purposes. But such a strategy completely explains the regular documented cases of the mysterious bloodless withdrawal of the inner organs from animals in different countries. It is easy to imagine the situation of the analogous behaviour of the Earth researchers in respect to the other biosphere.  Back

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